America's Secular Founding Fathers & Secular Religion
The French Huguenots are our
“Spiritual Founding Fathers”. They were
the first to bring the Gospel to what is now known as
The roots for syncretism in religion had already been planted in St. Augustine by the Roman Catholic Church in 1565 and it was upon this groundwork that the legal foundation was laid.
The French Huguenots were our "Spiritual Founding Fathers" and the "cornerstone" they laid down was a spiritual cornerstone and that cornerstone was Jesus Christ. Ephesians 2  And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;
However, Scripture tells us that there are those that have rejected Jesus Christ as the "cornerstone". 1 Peter 2  Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Zion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.  Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner,  And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
Acts 4  This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner. Amplified Bible: Acts 4  This [Jesus] is the Stone which was despised and rejected by you, the builders, but which has become the Head of the corner [the Cornerstone].
I believe that George Washington,
Thomas Jefferson and many others who signed the Declaration of Independence and
the US Constitution were
Thomas Jefferson, for one, rejected
Jesus Christ as the Cornerstone.
Before going into who
Satan & the “Age of Reason -
Satan Corrupted his Wisdom by Reasoning Things Out: Ezekiel 28  Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day
that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.  By the multitude of thy merchandise they
have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I
will cast thee as profane out of the
Because of his beauty – Satan reasoned things out (Ezekiel 28:15-17) and just as Satan corrupted his wisdom by “Reason” of his brightness or splendor, our Secular Founding Fathers who were influenced by the “Age of Enlightenment” also known as the “Age of Reason” corrupted their intelligence through “Reason”.
The Age of Enlightenment was born in the Garden of Eden
And, isn’t that what Eve did when she was deceived by Satan? Eve was deceived because she used reason to process what Satan told her which was contradictory to the instructions the LORD gave Adam. Eve “saw” that the fruit was “pleasant” meaning beautiful and pleasing to the eye. Interestingly enough, Eve took the fruit to “gain wisdom”. In other words Eve used reason to gain wisdom – thus the beginning of the “Age of Enlightenment & Reason” was born and man fell.
Genesis 3  And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.
“Did God Really Say”? One of the wiles of Satan is to “deceive” men into “Using Reason” instead of “Walking by Faith”. It’s important to understand that reasoning apart from the LORD corrupts wisdom. People will continue to reject the voice of the LORD if they rely on reasoning. Unfortunately, there are many Christians who reason things out in the same sense that both Satan & Eve did. These Christians are walking by sight and not by faith – and without faith it is impossible to please God.
“Embracing God’s Wisdom”:
Read Proverbs 1 through 9 regarding Wisdom. According to Proverbs we are to embrace God’s wisdom.
Proverbs 8  I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions.  The fear of the Lord is to hate evil: pride, and arrogancy, and the evil way, and the froward mouth, do I hate.  Counsel is mine, and sound wisdom: I am understanding; I have strength.  By me kings reign, and princes decree justice.
In verse 13 we find that
"Wisdom" hates "Pride", "Arrogancy", the "
It is important to understand
Thomas Jefferson and who he “Reasoned” Jesus Christ to be, more importantly,
who he “Reasoned” Jesus Christ not to be.
The Jefferson Bible: Although Jefferson believed that Jesus
existed and was a man of high morals; the "Jefferson Bible" supports
1 John 2  Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denieth the Father and the Son.  Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father: (but) he that acknowledgeth the Son hath the Father also. 1 John 5  Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?
Deism according to Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary is defined as: 1. belief in the existence of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation (distinguished from theism). 2. belief in a God who created the world but has since remained indifferent to it.
Jefferson’s reasoning that Jesus was
not the Son of God was the doctrine also accepted by the Unitarian
Church; a church that Jefferson was known to have attended. Both Unitarians and Deists believe in God;
however they believe that Jesus was a moral man and that he was totally
human. Even though a distinction can be
made between Deism and the
According to Henry J. Johnson concerning Jefferson: "His questioning turn of mind, and, to a certain extent, his unimaginative temperament, led him to certain views, particularly in matters of religion, which were thought at war with the welfare of society. But whatever the extent of his departure, in these things, from the majority of the Christian world, he does not appear, even in his own family, to have influenced the opinion of others. His views are described, by those who have studied them, to resemble those held by the Unitarians". 
While Johnson’s opinion of 1888 was
In addition to
The Religion of Freemasonry: The true Character of George Washington and
his role as
Freemasonry like Deism has the "outward appearance" of "holiness"; however to the contrary, they disagree with and reject the authority of Scripture.
2 Tim. 3  Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.
Someone who is honorable, decent, honest, moral, ethical, etc apart from the LORD does not equate to righteousness! All these qualities apart from LORD is just a form of godliness.
Deism, Unitarians and Masons all accept only the parts of Scripture that support their particular doctrine. However, to reject some of Scripture is to reject all the Scripture. Scripture interrupts Scripture – we are not to take it upon ourselves to alter the Word of the LORD. According to Scripture that is "False Teaching".
George Washington was a Freemason;
in fact he laid the first cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol. In 1931 The Congress of the
Following are quotes from pages 26-29 of this Pamphlet confirming that George Washington accepted all religions (all emphasis, italics and bold lettering, are mine).
Religion of Freemasonry:
Finally, Grand Lodge erased the ancient Charge 'to be true to God and
This Charge was of unparalleled importance; it founded modern Speculative Freemasonry on the rock of non-sectarianism and the brotherhood of all men who believe in a common Father, regardless of His name, or the way in which He is worshipped. [page 26]
Here again the
Mother Grand Lodge did something which was profoundly to affect the Frist President. That
Between 1717 and 1751 the Craft spread rapidly, not only in England but on the continent and in the colonies, especially colonial America, where both time and people, conditions and social life provided fallow ground for the seeds of Freemasonry. But in spite of a new life and the wise counsels of brethren who restricted the acts if not the power of the new Grand Lodge, all was not plain sailing. Dissensions appeared. Causes of friction, if not numerous, were important and went deep. In 1751 a rival Grand Lodge was formed. It came into being with a brilliant stroke, for it chose the name 'The Most Antient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons." Calling itself' Antient' and the other body 'Modern; at once enlisted the support of hundreds of brethren who did not go beneath the surface to learn which was really which. Then arose this peculiar and confused terminology; the original, the older, the most ancient Grand Lodge, was called the 'Modern' Grand Lodge, and the newer body was called 'Antient.' [page 27]
The new Grand Lodge kept the religious issue alive; by implication it made the 'Moderns' seem anti-religius. The 'Antients' were a Christian body and its Constitutions and its documents contained many distinctly Christian sentiments and references. [page 27]
The benefits which
came from this schism seem today to be greater than the evils. When one Grand Lodge established lodges on
war ships, the other formed army lodges which carried Freemasonry to far
places; when one body started a school for girls, the other organized a school
for boys – both still in existence, by the way! – as one Grand Lodge reached
out to the Provinces the other cultivated
reconciliation took place in Freemasons' Hall in
A united freemasonry agreed that forever more it would have no religious tests and would 'welcome to her doors and admit to her privileges worthy men of all creeds and of every race.' The 'Antient' Grand Lodge, which had been so aggressively Christian, made no difficulties over this significant, and important ground of difference. [page 28]
In 1815 a new Book of Constitutions proclaimed to all the world forever the non-sectarian character of Freemasonry in this Charge concerning God and religion: 'Let a man's religion or mode of worship be what it may, he is not excluded from the Order, provided he believes in the glorious Architect of heaven and earth, and practice the sacred duties of morality.' [page 28]
In the New World: Freemasonry came to America just before Washington was born, as an organization in which no religious tests were involved, except the fundamental belief in the Great Architect of the Universe. It taught morality, brotherly love, mutual help. It inculcated patriotism. It selected its members most carefully for character, reliability, manhood. It speedily became a meeting ground for men of diverse minds, characters, ideals, who found then, as men have always found, that in the lodge where all meet 'on the level' the necessary social, monetary, and other distinctions of civil life could drop away and allow mind to meet with mind and man with man, untroubled by artificial barriers. [page 28]
To tolerate all religions as the Freemasons teach - means to reject Christ as the cornerstone – because according to the Word of the LORD – Jesus Christ is the only way to God the Father – the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The Masons accept "Christians" in the same spirit that they accept all religions - because they "tolerate" all beliefs.
As Albert Pike states in Morals and Dogma, a handbook of Freemasonry: “We do not tell the Hebrew that the Messiah whom he expects was born in Bethlehem nearly two thousand years ago; and that he is a heretic because he will not so believe. And as little do we tell the sincere Christian that Jesus of Nazareth was but a man like us, or His history but the unreal revival of an older legend. To do either is beyond our jurisdiction. Masonry, of no one age, belongs to all time; of no one religion, it finds its great truths in all.”
Freemasons embrace and incorporate the teachings of ancient gods in their teachings and rites. Their cornerstone is the acceptance of all religions and all gods - including the religions of deities. The Bible speaks of these so-called gods.
1 Corinthians 8  For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, (as there be gods many, and lords many,)  But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. 2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
According to 2 Corinthians 4:4 Satan himself is the god of this world and the Roman and Greek gods are among the many gods and lords mentioned in 1 Corinthians 8:5. Many people believe that the gods of mythology are nothing more than fables. However, these gods are actually principalities; they are the fallen angels that fell along with Satan. Many of the themes of mythology have been borrowed from Scripture, the occultist having deleted from and added to the Biblical reference until its true context is perverted.
To some these stories are nothing more than fiction. However, there are many people, even today, who actually worship these deities in the same way that we as Christians worship Yahweh. However, these gods or pagan deities will perish from the earth. Jeremiah 10  But the Lord is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation.  Thus shall ye say unto them, The gods that have not made the heavens and the earth, even they shall perish from the earth, and from under these heavens.
In point of fact, Morals and Dogma, illustrates how deeply rooted Freemasonry is in the belief of the ancient gods. Pike states that, “The God of nineteen-twentieths of the Christian world is only Bel, Moloch, Zeus, or at best Osiris, Mithras, or Adonai, under another name, worshipped with the old Pagan ceremonies and ritualistic formulas. It is the Statue of Olympian Jove worshipped as the Father, in the Christian Church that was a Pagan Temple; it is the Statue of Venus, become the Virgin Mary. Pike further states that, “All religious expression is symbolism…. To present a visible symbol to the eye of another is not necessarily to inform him of the meaning which that symbol has to you…. For as with the visible symbol, so with the word: to utter it to you does not inform you of the exact meaning which it has to me”.
Freemasonry’s interest in mythology and the ancient gods is more than just mere intellectual curiosity – it is a belief, it is part of their acceptance of all religions. These so called gods of ancient mythology are nothing more than unclean spirits whether they be principalities or demons. And, it is to these unclean spirits that Freemasons are showing reverence.
No one will dispute that Freemasons are “very religious”. In his day, Paul found the Athenians very religious as well. And, the Freemasons of America’s Colonial days would have been right at home with the Athenians on Mars’ Hill as described by Paul in Acts 17.
Acts 17  Now while Paul
waited for them at
Verse 22 in the Amplified Bible
reads as follows: So Paul, standing in the center of the Areopagus [Mars Hill
auditorium], said: men of
Like the Athenians, the Freemasons of Colonial days were men known as “intellectuals” whose intellectual curiosity led them to have a reverence even for the demonic. Both the Athenians and Freemason’s deep-rooted need to worship led them to accept and include the worship of even the [so-called] gods; gods who were not gods, even gods in the form of animals. Paul says that “Claiming to be wise, they became fools [professing to be smart, they made simpletons of themselves]”. Amplified Bible
Romans 1  Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.  Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,  And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.
Influence on the
Freemasonry’s Input & Role
Regarding the United States Constitution Not Only Influenced America’s Laws –
they In Turn Influenced Laws Regarding Religion in
"But it is impossible not to think that Freemasonry had much to do with the spirit, if not the letter, of the fundamental law of the land, the most important enactment of the will of a people ever to be penned by human hands. [page 2]
Of the fifty-five Deputies who, in eighty-seven working days, completed this instrument, thirty-two are known to have been members of the Fraternity. Of the thirty-nine who signed it on September 17, 1787, twenty-one are known to have been Masons. [page 2]
Many of the fifty-five were brethren who had paid great attention to the Fraternity and whose influence in the Craft is felt to this day. Washington, first master of his Lodge, Grand Master pro tem of Maryland when laying the cornerstone of the Capitol; Benjamin Franklin, Grand Master in Pennsylvania; Gunning Bedford, Jr., first Grand Master of Delaware; John Blair, first Grand Master of Virginia; David Brearley, first Grand Master in New Jersey; William Davie, a Grand Master in North Carolina; Edmund Randolph, a Grand Master in Virginia and many others. [page 2]
That Freemasonry meant much to the leaders of the Revolution is known from countless letters, documents, contemporary accounts of the Craft in the days of terrible struggle. That thirty-two Masons of fifty-five Deputies had the fundamental teachings of the Fraternity in mind when they labored to produce a fundamental law to act as a cement never to give way, between Peoples and States of greatly varying size, power, wealth, industry, climate, ideas and ideals, is not only understandable – it was inevitable. [page 2, 3]
The historic document bears within its words the hall marks of Freemasonry, plain for the initiate to read, easy for the non-Mason to comprehend if he knows even the outlines of what Freemasonry is and for what it stands. Consider for a moment the Preamble: [page 3]
'We the People.' Not 'we, the rulers,' not 'we, the Deputies,' not 'we, the Governors,' not 'we, the wealthy, the powerful, the strong, the ruling class, the aristocrats,' but 'We the People.' The note of democracy thus struck at the very outset is truly the Masonic teaching of meeting upon the level and parting upon the square without reference to creed or place or power or position." [page 3] 
The above statement is, of course, ludicrous. How can anyone reconcile the "Black Codes" – the Laws that governed Slaves with "We the People"? The base line for the "Black Codes" was that the slave was property – slaves were not considered "People"! Every Code was written around that particular belief. Even the free Black Man was subject to certain of the Slave Codes! Only those considered worthy of being considered "People" were included in "We The People". The Slave Codes were written over a period of time both before and after the Constitution was signed.
"We" did not include either the Native American nor the African American. Neither the Native American Indian nor the African American was treated fairly nor treated as "People" by our "secular founding fathers" and obviously that includes the founding fathers who were Masons! To claim otherwise is an outright lie! Slavery is not unity. Not only is it documented it is common knowledge that both were enslaved and treated inhumanely. It was not "We the People"! The Freemasons must believe that we who are not Freemasons have a veil over our minds if they expect us to believe such claims. They flatter themselves with haughty godlessness. They are wise in their own eyes
 An oracle is within my heart
concerning the sinfulness of the wicked:
There is no fear of God before his eyes.
 For in his own eyes he flatters himself
too much to detect or hate his sin.
 The words of his mouth are wicked and deceitful;
he has ceased to be wise and to do good.
Did the Freemasons realize that slaves helped build the U.S. Capitol – even during the Civil War? The very Capitol that stands for Freedom and Liberty? Of course they did! And, sadly enough, the work being done was in the North – the North who was at war with the South to free the very slaves that they themselves were oppressing.
The Constitution and Freemasonry continues (again, all emphasis added is mine):
'In order to form a more perfect Union.' What Fraternity has always taught the blessings of a perfect union? Freemasonry. The Articles of Confederation which the Constitution was to supersede had not provided a perfect union. The Constitution did – a union which had been taught to thirty-two of the fifty-five as one of the blessings of the fraternal life, the life of brotherhood. [page 3]
owned slaves - slavery was not unity!
Slavery is not Brotherhood!
Slavery is oppression! Our
secular founding fathers did not treat everyone as brothers! The US Constitution is perfect in word
only. In reality many a man, woman and
child was oppressed by the very one who spoke about unity and brotherhood! It is obvious that the Freemason were
oblivious to the oppression in
“ 'Insure domestic tranquility.' From none more than from Masons could the doctrine of the blessings of unity be obtained. 'Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.' Anciently was it written in the Scriptures and for two thousand years the world had not heeded it. But Freemasonry not only heeded it but taught it, and that 'harmony which is the strength and support of all well regulated institutions' has been inculcated in Masonic Lodges since a day no man knoweth how old. It cannot be doubted that the thirty-two who had seen Whig and Tory, rebel and patriot, rich and poor, righteous and sinful dwell together in unity in a Lodge, had the wonder in mind in the phrase 'insure domestic tranquility.' " [page 4]
'Provide for the common defence.' Freemasonry has had no wars to fight, no weapons to raise. But the earliest gathering of Masons in Lodges was in defense of their common rights; their self-imposed restrictions on craftsmanship and skill were in defense of those who were worthy to style themselves Master Masons. In union is strength, because many may do what a few may not; this phrase, if less plainly originating in the Masonic Lodge, was nevertheless a principle of Masons long before the Constitution was thought of. [page 4]
'Promote the general welfare.' The phrase might well be a part of a Masonic ritual, for no human association does more to that end, or thinks more clearly upon the fact that the welfare of all is the welfare of the individual; the welfare of the individual, the welfare of all. Freemasonry today, Freemasonry yesterday, Freemasonry as far as historic records in documentary form go (1390) has always looked after the 'general welfare' of its brethren. . …It is ingrained in the very warp and woof of the Fraternity to think of a brother's welfare when on one's knees to Deity." [page 4]
‘To promote the general welfare,’ not a phrase from any ritual, is a phrasing of the spirit of all Masonic ritual. [page 4, 5]
'To secure the
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,' '
Here is an excellent example of syncretistic religion. The Freemasons take pride in their acceptance of all religions and their “Altar of Freemasonry”. However, their “Altar of Freemasonry” it is not acceptable to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and they will have to answer to Him.
Our Masonic forebears, and the historic men who were not of the Fraternity, in the Constitution declared for union, justice, tranquility, safety, welfare and liberty; all taught in Masonry long before the first colonist even dreamed of a civil union of colonies under the name of Sovereign Sates.
The Honorable Sol Bloom, Member of Congress from New York, member of Pacific Lodge No. 233, New York City, Honorary Member of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia, devoted brother to whom the Fraternity owes more than it may ever pay for his labors during the Washington Bicentennial Year, is now Director General of the United States Sesquicentennial Commission. In a radio address on ‘The Heart and Soul of the Constitution’ he closed with these ringing words:
‘That this nation is established upon the rock of God’s favor and protection is proved, we devoutly believe, by its indestructibility. Time does not wear down nor eat away the eternal truths of the Constitution. War can not overturn the temple of our liberty so long as American sons are worthy of their forefathers. Instead of fading with age, the glory of the Constitution takes on new splendor with the passing of the centuries. The faith of the forefathers gave them strength to plan for the ages. May we, with equal faith, guard our birthright and hand it down to our posterity as their most precious heirloom – liberty, ‘the immediate jewel of the soul.’
They were addressed to all who might have ears to hear. But they might have been written for brethren of the Ancient Craft who have as a precious heritage, never to be lost to memory, the knowledge that in the Constitution of the United States are embodied the principles of Freemasonry, and that Freemasons, in a majority of both framers and signers, were its makers.” [page 5, 6]
The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob
was never known by the name “
The Mason’s themselves refer to the “Altar of Freemasonry”. The Masons set up altars, which are high places, to many different gods. And this Masonic practice can be understood by reading 2 Kings 17 which describes the many high places and their gods. This practice was unacceptable to the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
2 Kings 17  Howbeit every nation made gods of their own, and put them in the
houses of the high places which the Samaritans had made, every nation in their
cities wherein they dwelt.  And the men of
According to Exodus 20:3 worship of any God other than the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob was forbidden.
In Addition to Freemasonry’s Religious Beliefs and Principles of Freemasonry Embodied in the Constitution they also Played a Role in the Founding of the District of Columbia:. "The accomplishments of individual Masons in creating the cornerstones of our nation's liberties speak proudly for the fraternity: ten signers of the Articles of Association, nine signers of the Declaration of Independence, nine signers of the Articles of Confederation, thirteen signers of the Constitution, thirty-three General Officers of the Continental Army, and eight of Washington's aides and military secretaries" The Freemasons refer to these cornerstones as both "spiritual" and "physical" cornerstones
Spiritual Cornerstones: To understand the intent of some of our "Secular Founding Fathers" we need to understand the "doctrine" of the Freemasons and the significance of the "physical" and "spiritual" cornerstones that were laid down by the Freemasons.
The origins of D.C. can be
identified by the first cornerstone laid down by the Freemasons. The first cornerstone was the most
significant and established the point from which the boundaries of the
It was from this cornerstone that the boundaries were surveyed. This first cornerstone was laid at Jones Point on April 15, 1791 long before the cornerstone of the US Capitol that was laid on September 18, 1793. Both cornerstones were laid with Masonic rites.
According to an article in The Washington Post July 10, 2001 – "Humble Monuments To Washington's Past", Benjamin Banneker, a free black who was an astronomer and mathematician, assisted Andrew Ellicott, the nation's preeminent surveyor, when the cornerstone was laid at Jones Point.
Benjamin Banneker was an astronomer who understood astrology and also published an almanac. Whenever Banneker assisted Ellicott, it seems that some eclipse or other significant celestial event was taking place. When the cornerstone was laid at Jones Point there was such an event going on.
According to David Ovason in his book, The Secret Architecture of Our Nation's Capital, on another occasion on April 3, 1791 when an eclipse was taking place, Banneker along with Ellicot were "…making preliminary observations so essential to laying out the boundaries for the new federal district". …As Banneker witnessed the predicted eclipse, he would have known full well that the ancients had always insisted that such a cosmic event would have a profound influence upon earthly events. He would have known, too, that the nature of that influence would depend upon the planetary patterns in the skies at the time when the eclipse took place".
According to Scripture – astrology, almanacs and stargazing are condemned by the LORD. Isaiah 47  Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail.  Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee.  Behold, they shall be as stubble; the fire shall burn them; they shall not deliver themselves from the power of the flame: there shall not be a coal to warm at, nor fire to sit before it.
According to The Secret Architecture of Our Nation's Capital : "Masonry's connections with the civilizing influence of the Republic were cemented to a great extent by the development of the new fraternal language, and by the encouragement of an inspiration to virtue, learning and religion. These two influences received ultimate expression in the spread of cornerstone ceremonies, designed to mark the foundation of important buildings or engineering projects. Symbolically, such ceremonials ensured that there was a relationship between Heaven and Earth: architecture was viewed as an instrument for permitting the unrestrained influx of heavenly virtues into the locality where cosmically oriented buildings were erected".
"The leaders of the early Masons were well educated, and in the 18th century a well educated person generally had some knowledge of the classics. This explains why, whenever a symbolism for the new Republic was discussed for practical purposes, ideas frequently circulated around ancient mythology". … "My purpose in emphasizing the cornerstone ceremony is to point to a rite that, in the early 19th century and earlier, formed a living spiritual connection between Masonry and medieval Masonic practices rooted in arcane schools. Very few important buildings in the ancient world or the late medieval period had been constructed without the formality of a foundations stone ceremony as part of the dedication to a particular god or saint. This practice was continued into North American cornerstone ceremonials which involved prayers, invocations to angelic beings, and religious rituals. There can be no doubt that the ancient practice of casting horoscopes to determine in advance suitable cosmic conditions for erecting a building was also continued into American rituals. By this means, it was intended that buildings should receive the blessing of the spiritual beings who dwelled in the heavens".
The ceremony that took place at
Jones Point included the traditional Masonic symbols of corn, wine, and
oil. Part of the Masonic ritual was to
"invoke the blessing of God". Cornerstones of Freedom describes the
reenactment of the cornerstone laid at the US Capitol. The Freemasons "celebrated the
bicentennial of the cornerstone of the US Capitol by reenacting the Masonic
ceremony dedicating this '
I don't believe that the God that was invoked was the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Why? Because according to the Freemasons "God" is who someone understands Him to be and given that they tolerate all religions, then God can mean many different things.
As stated earlier, Americans throughout the years have exalted our "Secular Founding Fathers" for their insight, intellect and good works. Yet, “Sound Wisdom” or even “Common Sense” leads us to believe that these particular men of supposed intelligence would not use symbolism in the way they did just for the sake of imagery nor would they go through the motions of the formal procedures or ritual without some purpose.
However, it does make sense when we remember that Freemasons kept their true purposes and the true meaning behind their rituals and symbolism hidden from the public. It’s ironic that the very Americans the Freemasons considered to be of a lower intelligence and not considered worthy or able to understand the secrets of Freemasonry are the very ones who have exalted them. Stop and think about that – are you one of those Americans?
Keep in mind that the “Secular Founding Fathers" were leaders – they were not followers. Furthermore, these particular men were influenced by the "Age of Enlightenment" – the "Age of Reason". Not that all reason is wrong; however, reasoning associated with Enlightenment was reason apart from Jehovah. Being influenced by the "Age of Enlightenment" they of all people would have employed "reason" to support such rituals and that reasoning would be, according to their beliefs, based on some truth. There had to be a "truth" behind the Masonic ritual for these men to either participate or support these ceremonies. These "truths" were "secret truths" and it is common knowledge that the Masons operate in secret concerning the so-called "ancient mysteries." And, these secrets were to be guarded and they were not to be revealed with anyone outside their Fraternal Organization.
According to the Masonic Text Book, “Temperance … This virtue should be the constant practice of every Mason, as he is thereby taught to avoid excess or contracting any vicious or licentious habit, the indulgence of which might lead him to disclose some of those valuable secrets which he has promised to conceal and never reveal, and which would subject him to the contempt and detestation of all good Masons. Fortitude is that noble and steady purpose of the mind whereby we are enable to undergo any pain, peril, or danger, when prudentially deemed expedient. This virtue is equally distant from cowardice and rashness, and should be deeply impressed upon the mind of every Mason, as a safeguard or security against any illegal attack that might be made by force or otherwise to extort from him any of those valuable secrets with which he has been so
solemnly entrusted, and which were emblematically represented upon his first admission into the Lodge. Remembering Prudence teaches us to regulate our lives agreeably to the dictates of reason, and is that habit by which we wisely judge and prudentially determine on all things relative to our present as well as to our future happiness. This virtue should be the peculiar characteristic of every Mason, not only for the government of his conduct while in the Lodge, but also when abroad in the world. It should be particularly attended to in all strange and mixed companies, never to let fall the least expression or hint whereby the secrets of Freemasonry might be unlawfully obtained. Page 43: "Finally, keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the Order, ….. being initiated into the secrets of Masonry, …"
Freemasonry and Secrecy:
The Fraternal Organization of Freemasonry
The “Workers of Stone” in the Old Testament
Obviously many of the Freemasons were literally masons; however, the occupations of the members who belonged to the Fraternal Order of the Freemasons varied. For example, from among the many Freemasons who were also considered to be Founding Fathers of America, George Washington was a surveyor and a mapmaker, Benjamin Franklin was an inventor, Gunning Bedford, Jr. was a Lawyer Jurist, John Blair was a Supreme Court Justice, Edmund Randolph was an Attorney as well as Mayor of Williamsburg and Governor of Virginia.
And, so it was with the “Workers of Stone” of the Old Testament that David refers to in 1 Chronicles 22:15. The varying occupations of the “Workers” included carpenters, craftsmen, engravers, makers, masons, smiths, workers and workmen.
Before David charged his son Solomon with the responsibility to build the House of God (verse 6) and ordered all the leaders of Israel to help Solomon with the building (verse 17), David gave orders for the “strangers” who were living in Israel at the time to assemble and from among them David appointed stonecutters to prepare the stones for building the temple (verse 2).
Because of the relevance to this
study, it’s important to understand that these workers of stone in verse 15
were from among the “strangers” in verse 2.
And, even though the “stranger”, whose ancestry was from among the pagan
nations, was allowed to live in
In addition to the strangers
already living in
The workers provided by Hiram, King of Tyre were also considered as “strangers” working in the land of Israel just as much if not more so than those from the pagan nations who were already literally living in Israel. In other words, it was not unusual for the Israelites to employ the use of pagans for manual labor. However, by doing so, the pagan status of someone did not change. A pagan was still considered a pagan.
Covenant of Brotherhood Violated: What Freemasons do not point out is that the
King of Tyre “violated” his “brotherly covenant” with
Amos 1  Thus saith the Lord; For three transgressions
of Tyrus, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof;
because they delivered up the whole captivity to
The workers in the context of 1 Chronicles 22 who were already living in Israel and the carpenters and masons provided by Hiram as described in 2 Samuel 5 were still just “pagan workers”.
And these Workers of Stone, Carpenters and Masons Worked in Secrecy
Just as the Freemasons of George Washington’s Day Operated in Secrecy
1 Chronicles 22  And David commanded to gather together the strangers
that were in the
2 Samuel 5  And Hiram king of
According to the Hebrew, “Worker” means “to conceal”; to practice secretly". The words “worker”, “carpenter” and “mason” all having the same Hebrew meaning. Each of these three words have the same Strong’s Concordance number: H2796 from H2790. However, some later versions of Strong’s are missing #2796. See Dake’s Software & the 1973 Reprint of Strong’s Concordance for #2796.
According to Strong's Concordance, “Worker” includes a “mason” as well as carpenters, craftsmen, engravers, makers, smiths, workers, and workmen. “Worker” is from Hebrew 2796 which is taken from Hebrew 2790. According to H2790 which is the primitive root, "Worker" means to conceal, to "devise in a bad sense; hence from the idea of secrecy… practice secretly".
The Gebalites: Before we leave this particular topic we need
to take into account the Gebalites and their relationship to Freemasonry. The Gebalites were the inhabitants of Gebal
and the name Gebal is used interchangeably with the word stonesquarers. The account of the Gebalites’ and their
relationship to the building of the
The significance of the Gebalites is their close relationship with the Israelites and Hiram’s builders. According to 1 Kings 5:18 the Gebalites, or stonesquarers as they were known, worked alongside Solomon’s builders and Hiram’s builders.
1 Kings 5  And Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders did hew them, and the stonesquarers: so they prepared timber and stones to build the house.
Below is Albert Pike’s narrative of the Gebalites from Morals and Dogma in the chapter discussing the Degree of “Knight Rose Croix”. It is obvious from his portrayal, that as masons, the Gebalites were held in high esteem by the Freemasons.
“Each of us makes such applications to his own faith and creed, of the symbols and ceremonies of this Degree, as seems to him proper. With these special interpretations we have here nothing to do. Like the legend of the Master Khurum, in which some see figured the condemnation and sufferings of Christ; others those of the unfortunate Grand Master of the Templars; others those of the first Charles, King of England; and others still the annual descent of the Sun at the winter Solstice to the regions of darkness, the basis of man an ancient legend; so the ceremonies of this Degree receive different explanations; each interpreting them for himself, and being offended at the interpretation of no other. In no other way could Masonry possess its character of Universality; that character which has ever been peculiar to it from its origin; and which enable two Kings, worshippers of different Deities, to sit together as Masters, while the walls of the first temple arose; and the men of Gebal, bowing down to the Phoenician gods, to work by the side of the Hebrews to whom those gods were abomination; and to sit with them in the same Lodge as brethren.”
Yes, Solomon and his men worked side by side with the men of Gebal who worshipped the Phoenician gods. However, Scripture tells us that Solomon lost his Kingdom to Jeroboam because of his idolatry and worshipping other gods. Psalm 89:38-45 reveal that Solomon’s days were cut short because of his unfaithfulness to the LORD.
1 Kings 11  But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter
of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and
Hittites;  Of the nations concerning which the Lord
said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall
they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their
gods: Solomon clave unto these in love  And
Solomon did evil in the sight of the Lord, and went not fully after the Lord,
as did David his father.  And the
Lord was angry with Solomon, because
his heart was turned from the Lord God of
Again, it is obvious that Albert Pike and Freemasonry viewed the Gebalites with admiration.
The Gebalites and George Washington the Surveyor & Mapmaker: I
believe that the Gebalites were “mapmakers” and George Washington’s role as a
surveyor and mapmaker as well as a freemason is more significant than anyone
fully understands. His role as a
surveyor and mapmaker was crucial when he chose the present geographical site
The Old Maps of the
To comment further on Albert Pike’s observation regarding what one person sees in a symbol or legend may be interpreted totally different by someone who professes a different faith. Unfortunately, even the Christian Church is guilty of taking ancient statues and art of pagan deities, giving them a name of either Jesus or one of his followers and then placing the pagan symbol inside the Christian Church to be venerated by its followers. The Roman Catholic is particularly known for this practice. Scripture tells us that we are not to portray the God head in art and we need to be obedient to that.
Amplified Bible: Acts 17  Since then we are God’s offspring, we ought not to suppose that Deity (the Godhead) is like gold or silver or stone, [of the nature of] a representation by human art and imagination, or anything constructed or invented.  Such [former] ages of ignorance God, it is true, ignored and allowed to pass unnoticed; but now He charges all people everywhere to repent (to change their minds for the better and heartily to amend their ways, with abhorrence of their past sins),
Now, let’s go back to the Masonic
ritual of laying a cornerstone and invoking deities. There is a Scriptural Basis for a
geographical area being in the possession of a pagan deity and its earthly
priests who have gone into a covenant with them. Just like the Biblical Gad,
For example: Molech was the national god of the Ammonites and Chemosh was the national god of the Moabites and both deities required child sacrifice [Leviticus 18:21]. And, at one time both deities had taken possession of a geographical area.
Jeremiah 49  Concerning
the Ammonites: This is what the LORD
Jeremiah 48  For because thou hast trusted in thy works and in thy treasures, thou
shalt also be taken: and Chemosh
shall go forth into captivity with his
priests and his princes together. Jeremiah
48  Woe be unto thee, O
Another example: Judges 11:24-27 describes a situation upon the belief that gods established and protected geographical boundaries. However, in verse 27 we find that it will be Jehovah that will have the final say concerning the deity Chemosh.
Judges 11  Wilt not thou possess that which Chemosh thy god giveth thee to
possess? So whomsoever the Lord our God shall drive out from before us, them
will we possess. 
And now art thou any thing better than Balak the son of Zippor, king of
In addition to Geographical deities - people can go into Covenants with a pagan god. Is it possible for a human being to actually go into a covenant with a pagan god? Yes! If they couldn't then there would be no need for the following Scripture which forbids going into covenants with pagan gods. Exodus 23  Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
It may not be a surprise that there is existing art work, in one form or another, that clearly conveys that America’s secular leaders were influenced by pagan gods when writing the Constitution. However, what may be a surprise is that the artwork was meant to convey the ideas and beliefs of our Secular Founding Fathers which at that particular time in History included their belief in pagan deities and their active role in the affairs of people.
Again, one only has to be familiar
with the Doctrine of Freemasonry to understand that their interest in ancient
mythology was not just mere curiosity.
They embraced the idea of pagan deities as part of their daily
lives. I would not expect the Freemasons
of today to agree because Freemasonry of today is quite different than it was
during the colonial days of
Symbols Are History Encoded in
Visual Shorthand: I want to
point out two examples of artwork that convey the influence of pagan deities in
for a New Nation Symbols are history encoded in visual shorthand. Eighteen-century Euro-Americans invented or
adopted emblems – images accompanied by a motto – and personifications –
allegorical figures – to express their political needs. …..Benjamin Franklin was responsible for
suggesting the country’s first emblem – a native rattlesnake – and its first
personification – Hercules. Both were
readily understood by his contemporaries:
the snake device conveyed the need for political solidarity among the
colonies, while the strength of the infant Hercules was likened to that of the
mighty young nation. Subsequent devices
continued to symbolize national union, while personifications were generally
composite figures that fused ideas of
This same website includes 25
pictures from the United States Capitol Exhibit and the one that I want to
comment on is titled, “Classical Temple Dedicated to
The second example of artwork
symbolism is the Statue of Chief Justice John Marshall sculpted by William
Wetmore Story in 1883, which currently sits in John Marshall Park, near the
United States Courthouse. Justice
Marshall, also a Freemason, was appointed by President John Adam as the 4th
Chief Justice of the
Even though the statue was sculpted
years after his death, it’s important to understand that the sculptor was the
son of another jurist who sat on the Supreme Court with
As a sculptor, Story would have
understood that the symbolism chosen by him would convey to the public and
future generations something personal about who John Marshall was and what he
stood for. Story’s personal knowledge of
John Marshall had a bearing in how he chose to portray
The following is taken from a description of the Statue of John Marshall that is included in Art in the Untied States Capitol (emphasis added): “On the north side of the base is a panel in relief, ‘Minerva Dictating the Constitution to Young America.’ A companion panel on the south side, ‘Victory Leading Young America to Swear Fidelity at the Altar of the Union,’ is depicted in the accompanying photograph.” 
The symbolism shouts to the public
that the Secular Founding Fathers were influenced by the goddess Minerva and
Victory when writing the Constitution.
We know from Scripture that in his attempt to be like God, Satan
counterfeits those things that God does.
For example, the Holy Spirit gave David the plans of how the LORD wanted the
1 Chronicles 28  He gave him the plans of all that the Spirit had put in his mind for the courts of the temple of the LORD and all the surrounding rooms, for the treasuries of the temple of God and for the treasuries for the dedicated things. (NIV Translation)
According to the following
Scripture we are not to bow down, nor serve, nor do after the works of Minerva
and Victory. Furthermore, the LORD has instructed that the “Altar of the
Exodus 23  Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images. Exodus 34  But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves:
Pictures: Obviously, many will reject the idea that
there may be something deeper behind the symbolism of early
Numbers 33  Then ye shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their molten images, and quite pluck down all their high places:
According to Strong’s 4906 the word “pictures” in Hebrew is referring to any figure carved on stone, the wall, or any object and even includes an observatory. Furthermore, the following excerpts from "Temple of Liberty" describes images of George Washington as the military deity "Jupiter" and in another image, Washington going into a covenant with "Jupiter" (emphasis added).
U. S. Capitol was patterned after Capitoline hill in Rome. The book "
We read further in the “
iconography of the panels decorating the south wing (which was to contain the
House of Representatives) is derived from the most powerful ancient
god, Jupiter, and the strongest ancient hero, Hercules. In the central panel, a single standing
figure (representing either collective American patriots or Washington) takes an oath before the seated Jupiter (bearded,
with his eagle by his side),
king of the gods in Roman mythology, and his consort, Juno. A long-necked goose stands alert at Juno's
feet; geese guarded the Roman Capitol. Oaths
in ancient Rome were taken at the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, located
on the Capitoline hill.
The above paragraph describes
Stephen Hallet’s fourth design submission for the Capitol design
competition. Although Hallet lost the
competition, he was later placed in charge of construction of the Capitol,
named superintending architect and his name was placed on a cornerstone of the
building. However, this rejected design,
parts of which were later incorporated into the final building, accurately
reflected the wishes and the heart of George Washington.
Interestingly enough, the "Apotheosis of Washington" which is
painted on the inside of the
The Persian name for "Jupiter" is "Mithra". Mithra was a military god and he was also known as the "lord of covenants" and his worship was extremely popular among the Roman military. In Judges 8:33 and Judges 9:4 this deity is known as "Baal Berith". When Mithra is in his role of "lord of the covenant", then the symbolism will show a deity seated on a rainbow. The deity is symbolic of a fallen principality and the rainbow is symbolic of covenant. Again, George Washington, portrayed as a deity in the "Apotheosis of Washington", is seated on a rainbow. Given the symbolism - this image of George Washington indicates that he went into a covenant with a deity. Do images and symbols actually reveal a "hidden message" to the initiated and "conceal" the real meaning to the masses? I believe they do! There is too much evidence to indicate anything other than that. Even historians and scientists state that much of what we know of ancient history is from the artifacts and their symbolism that was left by them.
The Scriptures clearly indicate that people can and do go into covenants with pagan gods. Unless of course, you use reason as your spiritual authority and extract from the Scriptures what does not agree with your reasoning! However, we are cautioned about removing or changing the Scriptures.
Exodus 23  Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and quite break down their images. Exodus 34  But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves:
Notice that we are to break down their images – not create them – as has been done at the U. S. Capitol.
S. Brent Morris explains in Cornerstones of Freedom what the Masons teach concerning religion: "The origin of all rights and civil duties is in the people of the state, which is ruled according to the new principles of liberty. The State recognizes no reason why one religion ought to be preferred to another; all to be held in the same esteem. Morris further states that, "Freemasonry does not favor any particular religion, nor does it permit religion (or politics) to be discussed in its Lodges. It strongly admonishes its members, however, to worship God as they best understand Him". … "they share a common purpose of glorifying the Grand architect of the Universe".
Because all religions do not accept Jesus as the "Son of God", then the Mason's "teachings" or "doctrine" that hold all religions in the same esteem makes it obvious that Jesus Christ cannot be the "spiritual cornerstone" that they lay down. "All Religions" include the religion of pagan deities as well. Given that not everyone's God is the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; then who is the "Grand Architect of the Universe"? Given the "teachings" of Freemasonry whereby they tolerate all faiths, then "The Grand Architect" is representative of all gods.
The "Grand Architect of the Universe" cannot be the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob because Jehovah will not share His glory with other gods. Isaiah 42  I am the Lord: that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images.
Who is this "Grand Architect of the Universe"? I believe that this Grand Architect is Satan himself. The principalities referred to in Ephesians 6:12 are architects as well as first in rank or to rule over. These principalities are the archangels, the first in rank among the other angels that fell along with Satan – Satan himself being an archangel.
Ephesians 6  For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
According to Strong’s, Greek 757 is the primary verb for “principalities”, “archangel” and “master builder”. Strong’s Greek 757 means to be first in political rank or power, reign, rule over. In other words, principalities, archangels and master builders all share something in common, which can be either good or bad.
“Master Builder” according to architekton, Greek 753, Strong’s is from Greek 746 (arche), and Greek 5045 (tekton); a chief constructor, i.e. “architect”:- master builder. And, the word principality is from Strong’s 746. Also, according to the “Online Etymology Dictionary”, the word “Architect” is from the Greek word “arkhitekton” meaning “Master Builder”.
In other words an “Architect” is a “Master Builder”.
Furthermore, a “Principality” can also be an “Architect” or “Master Builder”.
If the archangel is Michael, we know from Scripture that he does the bidding of the LORD. However, if the archangel is Satan or one of his fallen angels, then we know that whatever they are involved in will only result in darkness.
Master Builders: Paul is Symbolic of the Spiritual Master Builder
Bezaleel is Symbolic of a Master Builder in the Natural
From 1 Corinthians 3:10 we know that Paul was a master builder who was building for the LORD and the foundation he laid was that of Jesus Christ. The counterfeit to this would be a master builder who carries out Satan's strategy and builds upon the foundation already laid by Paul while at the same time rejecting Jesus Christ as the foundation.
1 Corinthians 3  According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.  For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
Paul cautions those who build upon the foundation that he has already laid. And, from all accounts, the Freemasons, who also refer to themselves as master builders, have been building upon Paul’s foundation. The Freemasons accept Jesus Christ based on the same principle that they accept all religions; therefore it is clear that they reject Jesus Christ as their foundation.
Bezaleel: Obviously, not all masons were “Freemasons”. While the Freemasons are not anointed by the LORD, the masons that worked under Moses were filled with the Spirit of God to accomplish the plans given to Moses. For example, Bezaleel:
Exodus 31  And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,  See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah:  And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,  To devise cunning works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass,  And in cutting of stones, to set them, and in carving of timber, to work in all manner of workmanship.  And I, behold, I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the hearts of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee;  The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat that is thereupon, and all the furniture of the tabernacle,  And the table and his furniture, and the pure candlestick with all his furniture, and the altar of incense,  And the altar of burnt offering with all his furniture, and the laver and his foot,  And the cloths of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in the priest's office,  And the anointing oil, and sweet incense for the holy place: according to all that I have commanded thee shall they do.
The masons supplied by Hiram were
simply masons; however, they were not anointed as the masons who worked under
Moses. And, the masons who worked for
Moses were from within
It stands to reason that this "secular religion" needed a "secular temple"
According to Pamela Scott in Temple of Liberty (emphasis added): "To plan a dome as the Capitol's central
element implied that the building was to serve a quasi-religious function – indeed to be a civic temple". "These temple-like structures were deemed
appropriate because liberty was a new
secular religion in revolutionary
Scott cites other examples
concerning the US Capitol's function to serve as a Temple (again, emphasis
added): "Thornton reinforced the
Capitol's purpose as a secular temple by suggesting a 'great repository,'
probably a burial crypt in the tradition of European churches, but one destined
for America's civic and military heroes.
Although he was still living,
Thomas Jefferson was in agreement
with this as well (emphasis added): "...Jefferson's preference among
ancient architectural traditions has always been supposed to be for the
The Cornerstone of the US Capitol that was laid by the Masons was a "Cornerstone for Secular Religion". The Masons accept all religions – they themselves confess that they tolerate all religions.
The original purpose of the US
Capitol was a "
© Gwen Thomas, November 2004 [Rev. August, 2006]
Architect of the Capitol. Art in the
Claudy, Carl. Washington’s Home and Fraternal Life,
pamphlet no. 14,
Duyckinck, Evert and Chappel, Alonzo. Lives and Portraits
of the Presidents of the
Fernandez, Manny. “Humble Monuments to
Hislop, Alexander. The Two Babylons, 2nd
Library of Congress Website. “A More Perfect Union:
Symbolizing the National
Long, Odell, Masonic Text Book for use in the Jurisdiction of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the State3 of West Virginia, 22nd ed., 1953
Morris, S. Brent. Cornerstones of Freedom.
Ovason, David. The Secret Architecture of Our Nation’s Capitol. NY: HarpersCollins, 2000
The Constitution and Freemasonry (from the Grand
Lodge A.F. & A. M. Virginia).
 Evert Duyckinck and Alonzo Chappel, Lives and Portraits of the Presidents of the United States from Washington to Arthur, p. 61.
 Ibid, p. 62
 Carl Claudy, Washington’s Home and Fraternal Life, pamphlet no. 14, p. 26-29
 Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p.276
 The Constitution and Freemasonry, p. 2-6
 S. Brent Morris, Cornerstones of Freedom, p. 77, p. 22
 Manny Fernandez, “Humble Monuments to Washington’s Past”, Washington Post, 10 July, 2001, sec B, p.1
 David Ovason, The Secret Architecture of Our Nation’s Capitol, p. 6
 Ibid, p. 121
 Ibid, p. 122-123
 S. Brent Morris, Cornerstones of Freedom, p. 29: "invoke the blessing of God". Page 54: "celebrated the bicentennial of the cornerstone of the US Capitol by reenacting the Masonic ceremony dedicating this 'Temple of Democracy' for the American people". "On September 18, 1993, the 200th anniversary of the laying of the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol, began as Masonry teaches all such great and important undertakings should begin – by invoking the blessing of God".
 Odell Long, Masonic Text Book, p. 43
 Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma (in the chapter discussing the Degree of “Knight Rose Croix”), p.276
 Library of Congress Website. “A More Perfect Union: Symbolizing the National Union of States”. 5 Sept. 2001, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/us.capitol/s1.html
 Architect of the Capitol, Art in the United States Capitol, p. 358
 Pamela Scott, Temple of Liberty, p. 23
 Ibid, p.41
 Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons, p. 70
 S. Brent Morris, Cornerstones of Freedom, p. 22 (as quoted from Robert Ingham Clegg. reviser, Mackey’s Symbolism of Freemasonry (NY: Masonic History Co.), 1921, p.164)
 S. Brent Morris, Cornerstones of Freedom, p. 101
 Pamela Scott, Temple of Liberty, p. 44
 Ibid, p. 45
 Ibid, p. 3
 Ibid, p. 51
 Ibid, p. 59-60
 Ibid, p. 60
 Ibid, p. 60